Key Resources

Looking for some resources on PAME research and application elsewhere? Look no further:

Web Sites

Key Readings

Algar, D., Pitt, M., Thomson, S., & Wright, P. (2007). Grasslands National Park . A Review of the Implementation of the 2002 Park Management Plan. Grasslands National Park: Parks Canada Agency.

Amend, T., Brooks, T., Choudhury, B. C., Coad, L., Dudley, N., Hockings, M., … others. (2014). Publishing for the protected area community: a vision for PARKS from its editorial board. Retrieved from

Barnes, M. D., Craigie, I. D., Harrison, L. B., Geldmann, J., Collen, B., Whitmee, S., … Woodley, S. (2016). Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size. Nature Communications, 7, 12747.

Belle, E., Stolton, S., Dudley, N., Hockings, M., & Burgess, N. D. (2012). Protected Area Management Effectiveness: A regional framework and additional METT module for monitoring the effects of climate change. Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC.

Biggs, H., Freitag, S., Breen, C., Slotow, R., & Hockings, M. (2011). How assessment and reflection relate to more effective learning in adaptive management: essay. Koedoe: African Protected Area Conservation and Science, 53(2), 1–13.

Bleher, B., Uster, D., & Bergsdorf, T. (2006). Assessment of threat status and management effectiveness in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. In Forest Diversity and Management (pp. 99–117). Springer. Retrieved from

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Johnston, J., & Pansky, D. (2006). Governance of protected areas. Managing Protected Areas: A Global Guide, 116–145.

Bruner, A. G., Gullison, R. E., Rice, R. E., & Fonseca, G. A. B. da. (2001). Effectiveness of Parks in Protecting Tropical Biodiversity. Science, 291(5501), 125–128.

Burgess, N. D., Danks, F. S., Newham, R., Franks, P., & Roe, D. (2014). Towards equitably managed protected areas: A review of synergies between Protected Area Management Effectiveness and Social or Governance Assessment. IIED Discussion Paper. London: IIED. Available at: pubs. iied. org/14647IIED. Retrieved from

Burgess_etal_2014_Effective_&_EQ_Mgmt.pdf. (n.d.).

Buteau-Duitschaever, W. (2016). Exploring Institutions, Governance and Collaboration for Regional Integration of Protected Areas in Québec – viewcontent.cgi. Retrieved from

Canadian Council on Ecological Areas. (2014). Conservation Area Reporting and Tracking System (CARTS) Report of Protected Areas in Canada. Retrieved from

Carbutt, C., & Goodman, P. S. (2013). How objective are protected area management effectiveness assessments? A case study from the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Koedoe, 55(1), 1–8.

Chape, S., Harrison, J., Spalding, M., & Lysenko, I. (2005). Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 360(1454), 443–455.

Coad, L., Leverington, F., Burgess, N. D., Cuadros, I. C., Geldmann, J., Marthews, T. R., … others. (2013). Progress towards the CBD protected area management effectiveness targets. Parks, 19(1), 13–24.

Coad, L., Leverington, F., Knights, K., Geldmann, J., Eassom, A., Kapos, V., … Hockings, M. (2015). Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1681), 20140281.

Coetzee, B. W. T. (2017). Evaluating the ecological performance of protected areas. Biodiversity and Conservation, 26(1), 231–236.

Convention on Wetlands. (2015). Evaluating and ensuring the effective management and conservation of Ramsar Sites. SC48-25.

Cook, C. N., Carter, R. B., & Hockings, M. (2014). Measuring the accuracy of management effectiveness evaluations of protected areas. Journal of Environmental Management, 139, 164–171.

Cook, C. N., & Hockings, M. (2011). Opportunities for improving the rigor of management effectiveness evaluations in protected areas. Conservation Letters, 4(5), 372–382.

Cook, C. N., Hockings, M., & Carter, R. W. (2010). Conservation in the dark? The information used to support management decisions. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 8(4), 181–186.

Davis, S. M. C. (2010). Rethinking Biodiversity Conservation Effectiveness and Evaluation in the National Protected Areas Systems of Tropical Islands: The Case of Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Retrieved from

Dirzo, R., Young, H. S., Galetti, M., Ceballos, G., Isaac, N. J., & Collen, B. (2014). Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science, 345(6195), 401–406.

Eagles, P. F. J., Romagosa, F., Buteau-Duitschaever, W. C., Havitz, M., Glover, T. D., & McCutcheon, B. (2013). Good governance in protected areas: an evaluation of stakeholders’ perceptions in British Columbia and Ontario Provincial Parks. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(1), 60–79.

Edgar, G. J., Stuart-Smith, R. D., Willis, T. J., Kininmonth, S., Baker, S. C., Banks, S., … Thomson, R. J. (2014). Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features. Nature, 506(7487), 216–220.

Ervin, J. (2003). Rapid assessment of protected area management effectiveness in four countries. BioScience, 53(9), 833–841.

Faber-Langendoen, D., Master, L., Nichols, J., Snow, K., Tomaino, A., Bittman, R., … Young, B. (2009). NatureServe Conservation Status Assessment: Methodology for Assessing Ranks. Arlington, VA: NatureServe.

Ferraro, P. J., & Hanauer, M. M. (2015). Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes? Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1681), 20140267.

Ferraro, P. J., & Pattanayak, S. K. (2006). Money for Nothing? A Call for Empirical Evaluation of Biodiversity Conservation Investments. PLoS Biology, 4(4), e105.

Ferraro, P. J., & Pressey, R. L. (2015). Measuring the difference made by conservation initiatives: protected areas and their environmental and social impacts. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1681), 20140270.

Franks, P., & Small, R. (2016). Social Assessment for Protected Areas (SAPA). Methodology Manual for SAPA Facilitators. London: IIED. Retrieved from

Geldmann, J., Barnes, M., Coad, L., Craigie, I. D., Hockings, M., & Burgess, N. D. (2013). Effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas in reducing habitat loss and population declines. Biological Conservation, 161, 230–238.

Geldmann, J., Coad, L., Barnes, M., Craigie, I. D., Hockings, M., Knights, K., … Burgess, N. D. (2015). Changes in protected area management effectiveness over time: A global analysis. Biological Conservation, 191, 692–699.

Hayes, T. M. (2006). Parks, people, and forest protection: an institutional assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas. World Development, 34(12), 2064–2075.

Henschel, P., Coad, L., Burton, C., Chataigner, B., Dunn, A., MacDonald, D., … Hunter, L. T. (2014). The lion in West Africa is critically endangered. PLoS One, 9(1), e83500.

Hockings, M., & IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas. (2006). Evaluating effectiveness: a framework for assessing management effectiveness of protected areas. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Hockings, M., James, R., Stolton, S., Dudley, N., Mathur, V., Makombo, J., … Parrish, J. (2008). Enhancing our Heritage Toolkit: Assessing management effectiveness of natural World Heritage sites. Retrieved from

IUCN. (n.d.). The IUCN Green List of Protected Areas. Retrieved May 5, 2015, from

Kapos, V., Balmford, A., Aveling, R., Bubb, P., Carey, P., Entwistle, A., … Manica, A. (2008). Calibrating conservation: new tools for measuring success: Measuring conservation success. Conservation Letters, 1(4), 155–164.

Kirik, M. (2001). Management Effectiveness in the Provincial Park System as Measured in Areas of Northern Ontario. University of Waterloo.

Kleiman, D. G., Reading, R. P., Miller, B. J., Clark, T. W., Scott, J. M., Robinson, J., … Felleman, F. (2000). Improving the Evaluation of Conservation Programs. Conservation Biology, 14(2), 356–365.

Laurance, W. F., Carolina Useche, D., Rendeiro, J., Kalka, M., Bradshaw, C. J. A., Sloan, S. P., … Zamzani, F. (2012). Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas. Nature, 489(7415), 290–294.

Law, L. (2013). The Muskwa-Kechika Management Area: A governance assessment of landscape-level ecosystem-based management (Working Paper No. 1). Retrieved from

Leemans_2017_WWF_preventing_paper_parks.pdf. (n.d.).

Leverington, F., Costa, K. L., Courrau, J., Pavese, H., Nolte, C., Marr, M., … Hockings, M. (2010). Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas – a global study (No. Second edition-2010). Brisbane, Australia.

Leverington, Fiona, Costa, K. L., Pavese, H., Lisle, A., & Hockings, M. (2010). A global analysis of protected area management effectiveness. Environmental Management, 46(5), 685–698.

Maclaren, V. W., & others. (1996). Developing indicators of urban sustainability. ICURR Press. Retrieved from

Mascia, M. (n.d.). Evaluating conservation programmes: what are the best methods? Science for Environment Policy.

Mascia, M. B., Pailler, S., Thieme, M. L., Rowe, A., Bottrill, M. C., Danielsen, F., … Burgess, N. D. (2014). Commonalities and complementarities among approaches to conservation monitoring and evaluation. Biological Conservation, 169, 258–267.

McClanahan, T. R., Verheij, E., & Maina, J. (2006). Comparing the management effectiveness of a marine park and a multiple-use collaborative fisheries management area in East Africa. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 16(2), 147–165.

National Parks Conservation Association. (2008). Natural Resources Assessment and Ratings Methodology.

Nolte, C., & Agrawal, A. (2013). Linking management effectiveness indicators to observed effects of protected areas on fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest. Conservation Biology, 27(1), 155–165.

Nolte, C., Leverington, F., Kettner, A., Marr, M., Nielsen, G., Bomhard, B., … Hockings, M. (2010). Protected area management effectiveness assessments in Europe. A Review of Application, Methods and Results, BfN-Skripten, Bonn, 69.

Osipova, E., Shi, Y., Komos, C., Shadie, P., Zwahlen, C., & Badman, T. (2014). IUCN World Heritage Outlook 2014: A conservation assessment of all natural World Heritage sites. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Parrish, J. D., Braun, D. P., & Unnasch, R. S. (2003). Are we conserving what we say we are? Measuring ecological integrity within protected areas. BioScience, 53(9), 851–860.

Pomeroy, R. S., Watson, L. M., Parks, J. E., & Cid, G. A. (2005). How is your MPA doing? A methodology for evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas. Ocean & Coastal Management, 48(7), 485–502.

Robinson, L., Dearden, P., & Orozco, A. (2012). Landscape-Level Governance Assessment Framework, version 2.1 (Conservation Knowledge: Protected Areas and Poverty Reduction). Canada Africa Research and Learning Alliance.

Rodrigues, A. S., Akcakaya, H. R., Andelman, S. J., Bakarr, M. I., Boitani, L., Brooks, T. M., … others. (2004). Global gap analysis: priority regions for expanding the global protected-area network. BioScience, 54(12), 1092–1100.

Rodrigues, A. S., Andelman, S. J., Bakarr, M. I., Boitani, L., Brooks, T. M., Cowling, R. M., … others. (2004). Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature, 428(6983), 640–643.

Ruiz-Jaen, M. C., & Mitchell Aide, T. (2005). Restoration Success: How Is It Being Measured? Restoration Ecology, 13(3), 569–577.

Sammet, A. M. (2011). Enhancing Management of Protected Areas.

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Convention on Biological Diversity (2004).

Segan, D. B., Bottrill, M. C., Baxter, P. W. J., & Possingham, H. P. (2011). Using Conservation Evidence to Guide Management: Lessons from NICE. Conservation Biology, 25(1), 200–202.

Stem, C., Margoluis, R., Salafsky, N., & Brown, M. (2005). Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation: a Review of Trends and Approaches. Conservation Biology, 19(2), 295–309.

Stephenson, P. J., Burgess, N. D., Jungmann, L., Loh, J., O’Connor, S., Oldfield, T., … Shapiro, A. (2015). Overcoming the challenges to conservation monitoring: integrating data from in-situ reporting and global data sets to measure impact and performance. Biodiversity, 16(2–3), 68–85.

Stolton, S., & Dudley, N. (2016). METT Handbook: A guide to using the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT). Woking: WWF-UK.

Stolton, S., Hockings, M., Dudley, N., MacKinnon, K., & Whitten, T. (2003). Reporting progress in protected areas. A Sitelevel Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool. Washington, DC: World Bank, WWF Alliance.

Stolton, S., Hockings, M., Dudley, N., Mackinnon, K., Whitten, T., & Leverington, F. (2007). Management effectiveness tracking tool: reporting progress at protected area sites. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Gland.

Stolton, Sue, & Dudley, N. (2009). The Protected Areas Benefits Assessment Tool. WWF, Gland. Retrieved from

Timko, J., & Satterfield, T. (2008). Criteria and indicators for evaluating social equity and ecological integrity in national parks and protected areas. Natural Areas Journal, 28(3), 307–319.

Tischew, S., Baasch, A., Conrad, M. K., & Kirmer, A. (2008). Evaluating Restoration Success of Frequently Implemented Compensation Measures: Results and Demands for Control Procedures. Restoration Ecology, 18(4), 467–480.

Tittensor, D. P., Walpole, M., Hill, S. L., Boyce, D. G., Britten, G. L., Burgess, N. D., … others. (2014). A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets. Science, 346(6206), 241–244.

Vanclay, J. K. (2001). The effectiveness of parks. Science, 293(5532), 1007–1007.

Woodhouse, E., Homewood, K. M., Beauchamp, E., Clements, T., McCabe, J. T., Wilkie, D., & Milner-Gulland, E. J. (2015). Guiding principles for evaluating the impacts of conservation interventions on human well-being. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1681), 20150103.

Worm, B. (2017). Marine conservation: How to heal an ocean. Nature.

Wright, P. A., & Stevens, T. (2012). Designing a long-term ecological change monitoring program for BC Parks: ecological monitoring in British Columbia’s parks. BC J Ecosyst Manag, 13, 87–100.

WWF, Z., & GFN, E. (2012). Living planet report 2012. Switzerland.

WWF, Z., & GFN, W. (2014). Living Planet Report 2014: Species and Spaces, People and Places. Gland, Switzerland: WWF.

Yahnke, C. J., de Fox, I. G., & Colman, F. (1998). Mammalian species richness in Paraguay: the effectiveness of national parks in preserving biodiversity. Biological Conservation, 84(3), 263–268.