Fighting Infection & Sleeping Sickness: A Tale of Trypanosoma brucei

(Post by Manvir Mehanger)

Dear sleep,

I know we had our problems when I was younger, but now I love you and want you back.

Sincerely, teenagers cartier love bracelet
and adults everywhere
.” –Author Unknown.



“Learning”-Image taken by CollegeDegree360 (CC 2.0)

When I think of Africa, I imagine serene desert lakes, majestic white mountains, warmth and breath-taking sunrises replica cartier ring and sunsets that are like nothing else in the world. I think of gracious giraffes, and enormous elephants roaring across grassland terrains. On the outside, Africa is depicted as the perfect utopia as it embodies serenity and captivating landscapes for all forms of life. Upon closer analysis however, a deadly cartier love bracelet disease has persisted and has boomed across the nation, annihilating anything that interferes with its transmission- the notorious sleeping sickness! No, not the overtly tired university student staying up late (AGAIN) to finish their assignment, and passing out for three cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
days afterwards because they’re sleep deprived- an actual sickness!

African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is an infectious disease that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the infamous tsetse fly (Figure 1).1 Within the tsetse fly resides the unforgiving protist Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) (Figure 2).1 This protist belongs to the phylum Sarcomastigophora, order Kinetplastida, and family Trypanosomatidae. Sleeping sickness is geographically specific to Africa, as it is prominent in 35 different countries within, affecting almost 50 million individuals.2 It has two causative forms as two subspecies exist, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, each which dominate the Eastern and Western components of the continent respectively.1,2


Figure 1. Tsetse Fly (Image taken by Micheal Wunderli, CC2.0)

Figure 2. Blood Smear containing Trypanosoma brucei. (Wikipedia Commons, Public Domain certified).


Sleeping sickness is a vectored disease, therefore, one mere mosquito bite has the potential to cause a cascade of effects, as the protozoan is passed into the hosts blood stream eventually initiating an immune response.3 This disease continues to persist throughout nature because it has two definitive stages, infective and diagnostic respectively (Figure 3). When a tsetse fly bites flesh and takes blood from its host, it leaves bracelets behind metacyclic trypomastigotes which then enters the blood stream and thrive in the human body. The injected material is able to rapidly how much does a cartier bracelet cost
replicate within the host and maneuver itself through internal fluids, like blood, ultimately amplifying the transmission of the disease.3 At this point, the host will show symptoms of a fever, have intermittent headaches, muscle pain, and malaise.3 Eventually hermes h bracelet
the integrity of the blood brain barrier will also be affected, giving rise to neurological disturbances in the patients.3 When the host is again bit by another tsetse fly, the blood filled trypomastigotes are re-ingested and are transferred into the insect’s mid-gut allowing for asexual reproduction, and thus giving rise to this never ending cycle! This results in the formation of epimastigotes, which divide once again and form metacyclic trypomastigotes!


Figure 3. Trypanosoma brucei life cycle illustrating both fake cartier bracelet replica
the infective and diagnostic transmission stages (Wikipedia Commons, Public Domain certified).

Pharmaceuticals are readily available for Sleeping Sickness thanks to the World Health Organization (WHO), as they have collaborated with drug development companies like Aventis and Bayer AG.4 Because of their continued efforts, individuals diagnosed with this disease are able to get medication at no cost.4 Regardless, Trypanosomasis still continues to exist today because it is extremely difficult to distinguish between infected and un-infected tsetse flies, thus halting eradication.4 Certain areas of Africa have attempted to protect vulnerable individuals from the insect by hanging large blue nets filled with chemicals alongside roads and rivers to kill the fly in remoter areas.3 Other regions, like the sub-Saharan deserts of Africa, have not been as lucky as there is so much more area to cover, approximately 10 million km2!3 Could you image how much material, money, and manpower would be needed to sustain such an act?! What makes matters worse is that larger areas have even more species of the tsetse fly, giving rise to increased vector transmission for this illness.4 Nonetheless, humanitarian organizations like Doctors Without Borders have various medical professionals like pharmacists, doctors, and nurses working rigorously to combat the effects, and distribute medication as required.4

Just imagine, one mere mosquito bite has the potential to put you to sleep for the rest of your life-which isn’t promising or forgiving at all! You’re probably thinking that you’ll never visit Africa now because insect bites are inevitable, and you don’t want to suffer the consequences of being a victim! Lucky for us, locals are more likely to be infected by the tsetse fly as apposed to tourists cartier love bracelet due to the fact that they just have more exposure to them. But with that being said, accidents do happen! Nonetheless, it has been suggested by healthcare practitioners that everyone should take preventative measures to cover up by wearing thick, long sleeve, neutral colored clothing, to create a barrier between the skin and the tsetse fly.4 It has also been recommended to thoroughly examine automobiles prior to entrance as these insects are attracted to dust particles and movement, and to also avoid playing in thick bush.4

From this, I am glad to be living in Northern British Columbia, as I probably never have to worry about potentially cartier double bracelet
dying after getting bit by a mosquito-which has its perks!

To watch the Tourist Who Got Bit by the Tsetse Fly, or Click Here


1 Steverding, D. The History of African Trypanosomiasis. Parasites & Vectors 2008, 1(3), 1-8.

2 Welburn, S.C., Coleman, P.G., Maudlin, I., Fèvre, M., Eisler, M.C. Crisis, what crisis? Control of Rhodesian sleeping sickness. Trends in parasitology 2006, 22(3), 123-128.

3 Brun, R., Johannes, B. Human African Trypanosomiasis. Infectious disease clinics of North bracelet replica cartier America 2012, 26(2), 261-273

4 Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., Büscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical microbiology 2005, 18(1), 133-146.