Odontodactylus scyllarus (Peacock Mantis Shrimp); The Deadly Punch

(Post by Brianna Valentine)

Odontodactylus scyllarus, better known as the peacock mantis shrimp cartier jewelry replica may be a fascinating, colorful crustacean to look at, However it is not one you would want to invite into your salt-water pool or aquarium. This destructive little shrimp will punch to death  anything in its path without mercy. The mantis shrimps’ aggressive way of dealing with cartier nail bracelet
its prey has made it quite famous in the scientific and marine community. The mechanisms fake cartier bracelets
behind the punching action done by these creatures raises many questions, however it may be helpful to first learn some background information on the mantis shrimp. The peacock mantis shrimp belongs to the phylum arthropoda, subphylum crustacea and order stomatopoda. The mantis shrimp is commonly found in coral reefs due to its preference of shallow, clear water (Kleinlogel and Marshall, 2009). This crustacean feeds on anything from fish, snails, crabs and mollusks (Kleinlogel and Marshall, 2009) despite its small size.

A peacock mantis shrimp showcasing its bright cartier jewelry replica colors. Photo replica cartier love cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
bracelet
by Charlene Mcbride. Used fake cartier bracelet replica
under creative commons generic license.

The enlarged appendages located on the anterior of the mantis shrimp, also callingallcakes.org known as the thoracic raptorial appendages (Patek and Caldwell, 2005), used to kill prey, have made this stomatopod famous. The massive strike of the mantis shrimp appendages are able to kill fish and break through hard shells such as those on crabs and mollusks (Patek and Caldwell, 2005). These powerful and deadly strikes happen in less than a second (often a few milliseconds) and have deemed the mantis shrimp to possibly be the “fastest appendicular striker in the animal kingdom”(Patek et al. 2004). The force from these strikes of the shrimp are thousands of times their body weight (Patek and Caldwell, 2005)  and is another reason the mechanisms of these appendages have become of such interest.

The breaking of shells is more often done by a force applied over a long period of time rather than a very short striking force such as that done by the mantis shrimp. The appendages work like cartier love bracelet
a spring which stores and releases energy with latches that prevent movement until maximum muscle contraction is achievable (Patek et al. 2004).  The ability of the mantis shrimp to kill prey in such a manor is broken down into two forces (Patek and Caldwell, 2005). The first force is the actual strike of the appendages and contact to the shell or prey. The second is the cavitation, or the formation and collapsing of bubbles, which occurs from the abrupt motion of the shrimp striking the prey. The force from the appendages of the mantis shrimp can be anywhere from 400N to 1500N (Patek and Caldwell, 2005). The forces from cavitation have been recorded up to 504N (Patek and Caldwell, 2005). These two forces tend to occur within 390-480μs of each other (Patek and Caldwell, 2005) and have serious consequences for anything in their  path.

Eyes and raptorial appendages of mantis shrimp. Photo by Elias Levy. Used under creative commons generic license.

The mantis shrimp also uses its raptorial appendages in making burrows and defense as well as fighting fake cartier bracelet other O.scyllarus species (Patek and Caldwell, 2005). These magnificent stomatopods are not only intriguing in appearance but might be one of the most entertaining to observe. The functioning and mechanisms behind the death punch of the mantis shrimp prove to be another mind-blowing feature of the animal kingdom. The peacock mantis shrimp may just be one of the toughest little creatures of the sea.

References

Charlene Mcbride. Photo. Accessed online March 12, 2016. https://www.flickr.com/photos/ursonate/4481222867/in/photostream/.

Elias Levy. Photo. Accessed online March 12, 2016. https://www.flickr.com/photos/elevy/14465973722.

Kleinlogel S, Marshall JN. 2009. Ultraviolet polarization sensitivity in the stomatopod crustacean Odontodactylus scyllarus. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Accessed online March 12, 2016 at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00359-009-0491-y.

Patek SN, Caldwell RL. 2005. Extreme impact and cavitation forces of a biological hammer: Strike forces of the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. Journal of Experimental how much does a cartier bracelet cost
Biology. Accessed online March 11, 2016 at http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/208/19/3655.full.pdf.

Patek SN, Korff fake cartier bracelets
WL, Caldwell RL. 2004. Biomechanics: Deadly strike mechanisms of a mantis shrimp. Nature. Accessed online March 11, 2016 at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v428/n6985/full/428819a.html.

 

Cardisoma guanhumi: Large, Old and Unique

(Post by Shane Tilbury)

The Cardisoma guanhumi, also known as the blue land crab, is a unique terrestrial crab that is different from other crabs because of its size, age and lifestyle. First of all, it comes in many cartier bracelets colours, the juvenile crab is a dark brown, orange or purple colour and an adult cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
is a blueish gray with females sometimes a light gray or white¹, but is predominantly the blueish gray colour. Another cool thing about the blue land crab is it can get up to 11 cm and weigh more than 500 g ². These crabs age slowly, reaching sexual maturity at age 4 which requires more molts than other crab species.  Blue land crabs are unique because they burrow deep holes to the water table, they migrate during specific seasonal weather and its interactions with humans.

 

Blue land crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) in a coastal swamp in Ubatuba, Brazil. Photo by Leoadec. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

The blue land crab is found from the Gulf of Mexico and Florida down to South cartier bracelets America. It inhabits cartier bracelets the coast line and is rarely found 8 kilometers off of the coast². They live in tropical areas where water can penetrate their burrows (which are several feet deep) to allow for moisture to enter as they still have gills¹ (although modified). Water temperature affects the larvae stage if it’s below 20 C, it causes the larvae to develop more slowly and the survivability replica cartier love bracelets of the larvae to drop² which limits the adults (who can withstand the water temperature better) to how far north or south it can live.

Blue land crab have a reproductive cycle that is linked to seasonal weather patterns and the moon². With the heavy spring rains, it causes the crabs to start to gain weight to prepare for the migration to the ocean to reproduce¹. The females then lay the fertilized eggs in the ocean within 1-2 days of the full moon², the larvae require salt water to survive. After spending about a month in the ocean, the now small crabs heading to shore in mass mirgations¹. Blue land crabs take 4 years before they reach sexual maturity requiring more than 60 molts to reach a proper size (that’s more than 3x times what a normal how much does a cartier bracelet cost
crab does)². They molt during the winter cartier bracelets when their burrows are sealed and because of this fake cartier bracelet replica
the larger crabs can be quite old.

A group of blue land crabs (Cardisoma guanhumi) in Palm Beach county, Florida. Photo by Ianaré Sévi. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic license.

Being a terrestrial crab means that they have a mixed diet of leaves and fruit but do eat insects, carrion and occasionally other blue land crabs and although they are considered terrestrial, they depend on the ocean for a large part of its life². This also means that there is frequent interactions with humans. In the Caribbean and Bahamas, the people use the blue land crabs as a food source and unfortunately the number callingallcakes.org of crabs harvested are increasing leading to a decrease in populations cartier jewelry replica but in Puerto Rico and the States there is regulations in place to control how many crabs are harvested¹. On an interesting note, these places that have the regulations in place don’t readily use the blue land crabs as a food source and view them as a pest because the crabs burrows can ruin lawns and chemicals can’t be used cartier love bracelet on the burrows because it could contaminate the water table¹. At least they’re nice to look at!

References

¹ Hostetler, M. E., Mazzotti, F. J., and Taylor, A. K. 1991. Blue Land Crab cartier nail bracelet
(Cardisoma guanhumi). #WEC 30. [accessed 2016 March 20]. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw013.

² Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. c2016. Fort Pierce (FL): Smithsonian Marine Station; [accessed 2016 March 20]. http://www.sms.si.edu/IRLspec/Cardis_guanhu.htm.

The Emerald Cockroach Wasp: Nature’s Hidden Neurosurgeon

(Post by Jennifer Reutens-Hernandez)

The Emerald Cockroach Wasp, Ampulex compressa (Arthropoda, Hymenoptera, Ampulicidae) is a venomous entomophagous parasite that has the ability to manipulate the behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) for reproduction in a unique way (Haspel et al., 2003). The female A. compressa is 22 millimeters long, with a glistening, blue-green body with red femurs on the second and third pairs of legs (Williams, 1942). The female also has a sharp ovipositor, while the male lacks a stinger altogether (Williams, 1942). The Emerald Cockroach Wasp replica cartier can be found in Africa, South Asia, and the Pacific hermes bracelets Islands (Williams, 1942). A. compressa is unique because instead of paralyzing cartier love bracelet
its prey, as other most other parasitoid wasps do, it uses neurotoxins to control the behaviour of the cockroach (Haspel et al., 2003).

Figure 1. An emerald cockroach wasp (A. compressa) displaying its blue-green body and red femurs. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. Source.

The Emerald Cockroach Wasp attacks cockroaches and modifies their behaviour using a two sting approach. The first sting is aimed into the thorax of the cockroach, resulting in a brief paralysation of the roach’s forelegs (Gal and Libersat, 2010). This sting immobilizes the cockroach, allowing the wasp to have more accuracy in delivering its second sting, a strike to the head of the cockroach. Gal and Libersat (2010) identified that the Emerald Cockroach Wasp accurately injects the venom into the sub-esophageal ganglion found within the cockroach’s brain. This second sting is the most important, as it causes the cockroach to become ‘zombified’ and submit to the wasp’s commands.

Now zombified, the cockroach can be utilized for the next step in the reproductive cycle of the wasp. The second sting of neurotoxins initiates the cockroach to excessively groom itself for 30 minutes, and then become sedentary for three to seven days (Gal and Libersat, 2010). This sting results in the cockroach losing its ability to autonomously engage in movement, therefore, preventing it from escaping from the evil wasp (Gal and Libersat, 2010). Essentially, the cockroach’s free will has been eliminated. However, when provoked by the wasp, the roach demonstrates adequate walking capability, reversing the paralysis elicited by the first sting (Gal and Libersat, 2010). This allows the wasp to guide the now docile cockroach into a small burrow by dragging on the roach’s antennae like a dog on a leash (Gal and Libersat, 2010). Then, the wasp attaches an egg onto the coxa on one of the middle legs of the cockroach (Herzner et al., 2012). At this point, all that is left to do is close the opening of the burrow, which the wasp does by filling it with pebbles (Gal and Libersat, 2010). The cockroach is essentially buried alive, and does not resist cartier bracelets the entrapment (Gal and Libersat, 2010). The wasp’s job is done.

The development of the A. compressa larva only requires the cockroach for a week, then it pupates (Haspel et al., 2005). The wasp’s egg hatches two days after oviposition, and the larva begins feeding on the live cockroach immediately. In order to do so, the larva makes a hole within the cockroach’s thoracic cuticle and begins by drinking the hemolymph for the next three days. Five days after hatching, the larva begins to migrate inside the cockroach and eat the roach’s internal organs in an order that maximizes the life of the cockroach, but the cockroach eventually dies. The larva then spins a cocoon within the abdomen of the cockroach’s carcass, pupates, and becomes an adult six weeks after oviposition. The new adult A. compressa is ready to begin its life cycle.

The Emerald Cockroach Wasp is also capable of instilling biochemical changes fake cartier bracelet replica
in its prey. Haspel et al.’s (2005) study determined that the wasp’s second sting into the cockroach’s head can modify the roach’s physiology. They found that the cockroach’s metabolism cartier love bracelet replica began to slow down due to a measured decrease in oxygen consumption. This is beneficial because the wasp will be able to maximize the nutritional quality of the food for the developing larva (because the organs are still fresh). Another food quality control step that the larva takes is orally secreting a broad spectrum antimicrobial concoction which essentially sanitizes the cockroach for consumption cartier bracelet
(Herzner et al., 2012). They found that certain compounds within this secretion inhibited the growth of entomopathogenic organisms. For example, the compound (R)-(-)-mellein inhibited the growth of Serratia marcescens, while (R)-(-)-mellein and micromollide inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus hyicus. The antimicrobial concoction not only sanitizes the food source, but protects cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
the developing larva from harmful bacteria that could quickly kill it.

The Emerald Cockroach Wasp hunts cockroaches for the purpose of utilizing them as an incubator and food supply for its offspring. By injecting powerful neurotoxins directly into the sub-esophageal ganglia, A. compressa successfully modifies the behaviour of cockroaches to fulfill its reproductive requirements. This mechanism of reproduction is unique within the animal kingdom and serves how much does a cartier bracelet cost
as a shining example of the complexity of certain invertebrate behaviours. Hopefully, the Emerald Cockroach Wasp does not evolve in a manner cartier bracelet price that would bracelet replica cartier allow it to parasitize humans during its reproductive cycle!

LITERATURE CITED

Gal, R., & Libersat, F. (2010). A wasp manipulates neuronal activity in the sub-esophageal ganglion to decrease the drive for walking in its cockroach prey. Public Library of Science, 5, 1-10.

Haspel, G., Gefen, E., Ar A., Glusman, J.G., & Libersat, F. (2005). Parasitoid wasp affects metabolism of cockroach host to favor food preservation for its offspring. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 191, 529-534.

Haspel, G., Rosenberg, L.A., & Libersat, F. (2003). Direct www.cartierlovebracelet.co injection of venom by a predatory wasp into cockroach brain. Journal of Neurobiology, 5, 287-292.

Herzner, G., Schlecht, A., Dollhofer, V., Parzefall, C., Harrar, K., Kreuzer, A., Pilsl, L., & Ruther, J. (2013). Larvae of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa sanitize their host, the American cockroach, with a blend of antimicrobials. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 1369-1374.

Williams, F.X. (1941). Ampulex compressa (Fabr.), a cockroach-hunting wasp introduced from New Caledonia into Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 11, 221-233.

destructor of Bees

(Post by Alicja Muir)

A summary cartier bracelets of the life and effects of Varroa destructor mites on Honeybees.

Many of you have probably heard about the Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) plaguing apiaries around the world. But do you know what some possible causes are? One pest that can quickly devastate a hive is a mite called Varroa destructor. A pretty cartier replica good name for a parasite that is half the size of your head and likes to suck your internal juices out.

Up until the 1950s the Varroa mite was only found replica cartier in Southeast Asia where it was parasitizing Apis cerana (the Eastern Honeybee). This species of bee most likely evolved with the mite and has natural bracelets defences against it.  After the Second World War the mite was slowly (and of course, accidentally) dispersed worldwide. The only places where honeybees live replica cartier love bracelets and the Varroa mite does not are Australia and New Zealand. Apis mellifera (the European Honeybee) is virtually defenseless against Varroa and it is the species of honeybee used cartier bracelet
across North America and most of the world for honey production and crop pollination. Therefore, Varroa destructor is a huge problem for the world economy and food availability.

The female mites lay one male egg followed by up to four female eggs in a cell containing a pupating bee. The mites feed on the pupa within the capped cell. Adolescent and male mites remain within the cell in which they were born.  Adult female mites, however, operate quite differently. They prefer to attach to young worker bees and will feed on their hemolymph but research suggests that the main reason the mites attach is simply for transport to other brood cells and occasionally other hives. Young worker bees are known as nurse bees as they travel from brood cell to brood cell feeding the larvae. Based on observing the adult female mites’ behaviour, they can definitely tell how old a worker bee is. Scientists are not sure how the mites judge the age of an adult bee but their chemoreceptors are likely involved. Research shows that the older a worker bee gets the more of the pheromone geraniol she gives off.

The parasitic disease caused by a Varroa mite infestation is called varroosis. This mainly consists of a weakened fake cartier bracelet replica
immune system. The mites transmit Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) to larvae and pupae and when they immerge as adult bees they—you guessed it—have deformed wings. This is extremely detrimental to not only the bee itself but to the colony as a bee who cannot fly cannot gather food. DWV is one of 22 viruses often found in honeybee hives although it usually affects less than 10% of the population. Having a weakened immune system from mite parasitization makes a bee vulnerable to not only DWV but to bacteria as well.

In temperate climates most colonies would fail within two to three years without being treated for mites on a consistent basis. A huge percentage of wild Apis mellifera colonies, who lack the treatments provided by humans, have been wiped how much does a cartier bracelet cost
out. Common mite treatments range from things as simple as wire netting at the bottom of the bee hive which the mites fall through and land on a sticky board to synthetic chemicals sprayed directly onto the bees. The synthetic chemicals are effective but can leave residues within the bee products which are harvested and consumed hermes replica jewelry by people. No matter what treatment is used it is still human intervention. We as apiculturists cartier bracelets and a community that relies heavily on apiculture are stuck between a rock and a hard place as they say. On one hand, by continuing to treat for mites and other organisms that have detrimental effects on our honeybees, we prevent them from building up natural defences. On the other hand, we can stop treating them to try to allow them to build natural defences and watch the vast majority, if not all of them, die before being able to evolve.

There are so many unknowns surrounding the symbiosis between Varroa mites and honeybees. More replica cartier research needs to be done to determine the correct plan of action.

 

References

Rosenkranz P, Aumeier P, Ziegelmann B. 2010. Biology and control of Varroa destructor.Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 103:S96–S119. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201109001906

Sammataro D, Gerson U, Needham G. 2000. Parasitic Mites of Honey Bees: Life History, Implications, and Impact.Annual Review of Entomology 45:519–548. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ento.45.1.519

Yang X, Cox-Foster D. 2007. Effects of parasitization by Varroa destructor on survivorship and physiological traits of Apis mellifera in correlation with viral incidence and microbial challenge.Parasitology 134:405–412. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=691000&fileId=S0031182006000710

 

Picture 1: Adult female mite on honey bee pupa

By Gilles San Martin from Namur, Belgium cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
[CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Picture 2: Adult bee with Deformed Wing Virus

By Xolani90 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=26406168

Fighting Infection & Sleeping Sickness: A Tale of Trypanosoma brucei

(Post by Manvir Mehanger)

Dear sleep,

I know we had our problems when I was younger, but now I love you and want you back.

Sincerely, teenagers www.cartierlovebracelet.co cartier love bracelet
and adults everywhere
.” –Author Unknown.

 

 

“Learning”-Image taken by CollegeDegree360 (CC 2.0)

When I think of Africa, I imagine serene desert lakes, majestic white mountains, warmth and breath-taking sunrises replica cartier ring and sunsets that are like nothing else in the world. I think of gracious giraffes, and enormous elephants roaring across grassland terrains. On the outside, Africa is depicted as the perfect utopia as it embodies serenity and captivating landscapes for all forms of life. Upon closer analysis however, a deadly cartier love bracelet disease has persisted and has boomed across the nation, annihilating anything that interferes with its transmission- the notorious sleeping sickness! No, not the overtly tired university student staying up late (AGAIN) to finish their assignment, and passing out for three cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
days afterwards because they’re sleep deprived- an actual sickness!

African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is an infectious disease that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the infamous tsetse fly (Figure 1).1 Within the tsetse fly resides the unforgiving protist Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) (Figure 2).1 This protist belongs to the phylum Sarcomastigophora, order Kinetplastida, and family Trypanosomatidae. Sleeping sickness is geographically specific to Africa, as it is prominent in 35 different countries within, affecting almost 50 million individuals.2 It has two causative forms as two subspecies exist, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, each which dominate the Eastern and Western components of the continent respectively.1,2

 

Figure 1. Tsetse Fly (Image taken by Micheal Wunderli, CC2.0)

Figure 2. Blood Smear containing Trypanosoma brucei. (Wikipedia Commons, Public Domain certified).

 

Sleeping sickness is a vectored disease, therefore, one mere mosquito bite has the potential to cause a cascade of effects, as the protozoan is passed into the hosts blood stream eventually initiating an immune response.3 This disease continues to persist throughout nature because it has two definitive stages, infective and diagnostic respectively (Figure 3). When a tsetse fly bites flesh and takes blood from its host, it leaves bracelets behind metacyclic trypomastigotes which then enters the blood stream and thrive in the human body. The injected material is able to rapidly how much does a cartier bracelet cost
replicate within the host and maneuver itself through internal fluids, like blood, ultimately amplifying the transmission of the disease.3 At this point, the host will show symptoms of a fever, have intermittent headaches, muscle pain, and malaise.3 Eventually hermes h bracelet
the integrity of the blood brain barrier will also be affected, giving rise to neurological disturbances in the patients.3 When the host is again bit by another tsetse fly, the blood filled trypomastigotes are re-ingested and are transferred into the insect’s mid-gut allowing for asexual reproduction, and thus giving rise to this never ending cycle! This results in the formation of epimastigotes, which divide once again and form metacyclic trypomastigotes!

 

Figure 3. Trypanosoma brucei life cycle illustrating both fake cartier bracelet replica
the infective and diagnostic transmission stages (Wikipedia Commons, Public Domain certified).

Pharmaceuticals are readily available for Sleeping Sickness thanks to the World Health Organization (WHO), as they have collaborated with drug development companies like Aventis and Bayer AG.4 Because of their continued efforts, individuals diagnosed with this disease are able to get medication at no cost.4 Regardless, Trypanosomasis still continues to exist today because it is extremely difficult to distinguish between infected and un-infected tsetse flies, thus halting eradication.4 Certain areas of Africa have attempted to protect vulnerable individuals from the insect by hanging large blue nets filled with chemicals alongside roads and rivers to kill the fly in remoter areas.3 Other regions, like the sub-Saharan deserts of Africa, have not been as lucky as there is so much more area to cover, approximately 10 million km2!3 Could you image how much material, money, and manpower would be needed to sustain such an act?! What makes matters worse is that larger areas have even more species of the tsetse fly, giving rise to increased vector transmission for this illness.4 Nonetheless, humanitarian organizations like Doctors Without Borders have various medical professionals like pharmacists, doctors, and nurses working rigorously to combat the effects, and distribute medication as required.4

Just imagine, one mere mosquito bite has the potential to put you to sleep for the rest of your life-which isn’t promising or forgiving at all! You’re probably thinking that you’ll never visit Africa now because insect bites are inevitable, and you don’t want to suffer the consequences of being a victim! Lucky for us, locals are more likely to be infected by the tsetse fly as apposed to tourists cartier love bracelet due to the fact that they just have more exposure to them. But with that being said, accidents do happen! Nonetheless, it has been suggested by healthcare practitioners that everyone should take preventative measures to cover up by wearing thick, long sleeve, neutral colored clothing, to create a barrier between the skin and the tsetse fly.4 It has also been recommended to thoroughly examine automobiles prior to entrance as these insects are attracted to dust particles and movement, and to also avoid playing in thick bush.4

From this, I am glad to be living in Northern British Columbia, as I probably never have to worry about potentially cartier double bracelet
dying after getting bit by a mosquito-which has its perks!

To watch the Tourist Who Got Bit by the Tsetse Fly, or Click Here

References

1 Steverding, D. The History of African Trypanosomiasis. Parasites & Vectors 2008, 1(3), 1-8.

2 Welburn, S.C., Coleman, P.G., Maudlin, I., Fèvre, M., Eisler, M.C. Crisis, what crisis? Control of Rhodesian sleeping sickness. Trends in parasitology 2006, 22(3), 123-128.

3 Brun, R., Johannes, B. Human African Trypanosomiasis. Infectious disease clinics of North bracelet replica cartier America 2012, 26(2), 261-273

4 Chappuis, F., Loutan, L., Simarro, P., Lejon, V., Büscher, P. Options for Field Diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis. Clinical microbiology 2005, 18(1), 133-146.

The colonial abilities of Hydrozoans (Siphonophorae)

(Post by Brennan Lindsay)

The Hydrozoans are the most diverse of the classes of phylum Cnidaria and are extremely variable in appearance, shape and size. Hydrozoans are small invertebrates that mostly like to inhabit salty marine environments. A common feature noted throughout class Hydrozoa is the long body stalk possessing a number of tentacles at one end of the body. Like www.cartierlovebracelet.co many organisms in phylum Cnidaria, Hydrozoans can possess polyploid and medusoid cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
stages in their life cycles, but most grow into one stage and stick to it throughout its existence. The most well-known organism of class Hydrozoa is the sessile Hydra, which completely lacks cartier love bracelet
the medusoid life stage mentioned above and instead prefers to attach fake cartier bracelet replica
to a substrate how much does a cartier bracelet cost
and stay there (Barnes 1982).

Two Hydra cartier bracelet
adhering to a surface, displaying their sessile polyp appearance. (Photo by Stephen Friedt)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydra_(genus)#/media/File:Hydras_(8).JPG

Individuals in class Hydrozoa are dioecious and possess impressive colonial abilities. This is especially demonstrated in some organisms in the class, notably those in the order Siphonophorae. Physalia physalis, or more commonly known as the Portuguese Man O’ War, are colonial Hydrozoans from the order Siphonophorae. This organism may initially resemble a Scyphozoan Jellyfish, but after closer inspection, the intricacy and structural complexity of Physalia physalis is revealed. The Man o’ War is a floating hydrozoan colony, made up of four different kinds of polyp stage Hydrozoans; pneumatophores for floating on the ocean surface, dactylozooids for defense, gastrozooids for feeding, and gonozooids for reproduction. These zooids are so heavily specialized that if one were to be removed from the bulk colony it wouldn’t be able to survive on its own (Kurlansky 2004).

Since Physalia physalis lacks conventional muscles and eyes, it must use alternate strategies to achieve locomotion and to acquire nutrients. The organism spends all of its time drifting along the surface of the ocean, filling fake cartier bracelet its blue cartier bracelet bulbous pneumatophore with C02 and using it as a mast, capturing wind currents to sail around (Kirkpatrick and Pugh 1984). The pneumatophore develops lopsided to either the left or the right side, resulting in the organisms’ characteristic 45 degree surface float diagonal to the wind direction (Kurlansky 2004 and Kirkpatrick & Pugh 1984). This form of locomotion is extremely restrictive, making nutrient acquisition difficult. To counteract this, Physalia physalis stretch out up to 50 meters of nematocyst laden dactylozooids that act as a massive scale fishnet (Johnsen 2000), capturing any unsuspecting marine creatures below and paralyzing them. These nematocysts are variable in size, being either large or small on the organism (Kurlansky 2004).

Portugese Man o’ War (Physalia physalis). Photo by U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portuguese_Man-O-War_(Physalia_physalis).jpg

 

The long nematocyst laden tentacles used in the feeding of Physalia physalis poses cartier love necklace a particular problem to the tourism industry. These organisms aren’t endangered and can be found in abundance in certain oceanic areas. If people come into contact with the long tentacles of the Man o’ War they can be severely injured. Stings result in long red linear marks followed by intense rashes and pain. The pain can escalate and cause cardiac problems with anaphylactic shock in humans (Hoover 2015). Overall, Physalia physalis is a fascinating example of the Hydrozoans colonial abilities. The colonial zooids making up the organism all work together to form a motile, nutrient acquiring ecosystem floating on temperate ocean currents. The success of these organisms has allowed their lineage to continue cartier love bracelet replica until this day.

References

  1. Hoover, M. 2015. Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda. Accessed Online 3/13/2016.  http://www.thecephalopodpage.org/MarineInvertebrateZoology/Physaliaphysalis.html
  2. Johnsen, S. 2000. Transparent Animals. Scientific American. 282. (2).
  3. Kirkpatrick, P. A. and P.R. Pugh. Siphonophores replica cartier and Velellids. The Linnean Society of London and the Estuarine and Brackish – Water Sciences Association. London. 1984.
  4. Kurlansky, M. 2004. Physalia Physalis. Accessed Online. Animal Diversity Web. Animaldiversity.org/site/accounts/information/physalia_physalis.html
  5. Lee, J. B. 2003. Portugese man of war. Accessed Online. Dangerous cartier love bracelet and venomous Hawaiian ocean organisms. Accessed 2/28/2016 at www.aloha.com/~lifeguards/portuge/html.
  6. Sterrer, W. Bermuda’s Marine Life. Island Press. Bermuda, 1992.

Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita): The invasion

(Post by Aisha Kore)

Hillewaert, Hans. “Aurelia aurita.” 2008. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aurelia_aurita_2.jpg. Accessed March 21, 2016.

 

Aurelia aurita, more commonly known as the moon jellyfish, is a species cartier bracelet
of jellyfish belonging to the Class Scyphozoa that fake cartier bracelet replica
is found in salt cartier replica water bodies how much does a cartier bracelet cost
all across www.callingallcakes.org the globe, though more notably cartierlovebracelet.co along coastal regions and ocean shelves (Lucas 2001). This jellyfish species is most commonly located in temperate waters and tropical waters (Stoecker et al. 1987), particularly northwest of Europe, in the Black Sea, around Japan, as well as in areas of North America (Lucas 2001). However, the moon jellyfish is very flexible and is able to adapt to many different hermes h bracelet
environment conditions (Lucas 2001). It is easily distinguished by the four horseshoe-like gonads (Lucas & Lawes 1998) seen from the top of its bell that give it the appearance of a flower. Moon jellyfish are armed with nematocysts, but unlike most other types of jellyfish, the stings are generally not considered dangerous to humans – although some moon jellyfish in certain areas of the world are capable of causing irritation to the skin – and people often play with them (Segura-Puertas et al. 2002). Additionally, these nematocysts have not been observed to take part in the capture of prey, either (Stoecker et al. 1987).

Moon jellyfish are considered to be generalists and feed www.callingallcakes.org on different types of zooplankton bracelet replica cartier (Costello & Colin 1994; Lucas 2001), phytoplankton, cypriids, ciliates, rotifers, copepods and bivalve and fish larvae (Stoecker et al. 1987). These jellyfish feed by capturing prey with the mucus lining the outside of their bodies; ciliary currents move the prey into food pouches found along the bell’s margin (Stoecker et al. 1987). The oral arms then move the mucus and prey into the gastric pouches (Stoecker et al. 1987). The prey density often influences the growth of the moon jellyfish (Lucas 2001). For instance, most populations of moon jellyfish are generally observed to have three main growth phases: winter to early spring, mid-spring and summer to autumn (Lucas 2001). Between winter and the beginning of spring, when the number of prey is relatively low, slow growth is observed; when food is abundant during bracelet replica cartier mid-spring, exponential growth is observed; and shrinkage is seen between summer and autumn as the jellyfish are beginning to reproduce (Lucas 2001). When high levels of prey are available, moon jellyfish are able to undergo very rapid growth thanks to its low carbon density; on the other hand, when not much food is available, the medusae tend to shrink to prepare to endure long periods of starvation (Lucas 2001). These states are observed to only be temporary as once food is abundant again, interestingly, the jellyfish will regain its original form, complete with fertile gonads (Lucas 2001).

In some areas around the world, during the summer months especially when the jellyfish start to reproduce, moon jellyfish blooms are a common sight (Lucas 2001). These blooms can have a very detrimental effect on the ecosystem along the coast (Stoecker et al. 1987), fisheries, tourism and even power stations, making them both a biological and an economical issue (Lucas 2001). As fish larvae are a part of the diet of the moon jellyfish, jellyfish blooms could cause a major problem for fisheries and the coastal populations of fish; additionally, the jellyfish could outcompete the fish larvae for food (Lucas 2001). On top of this, moon jellyfish blooms can also cause a number of other problems, as well, one of them being a bloom of a different organism: phytoplankton (Lucas 2001). If predatory pressure on the coastal phytoplankton population suddenly increases, but the levels of nutrient and light are high, “top-down regulation of plankton communities may also occur, resulting in increased phytoplankton blooms and alteration of species composition” (Lucas 2001). A moon jellyfish bloom is shown in the picture cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
below.

Thyssen, Malene. “Vandmaend.” https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vandmaend.jpg. Accessed March 21, 2016.

Moon jellyfish blooms have proven to be a quite problem. Many replica cartier love bracelet Asian countries, especially China, regard jellyfish as a traditional delicacy (including me), but unfortunately, moon jellyfish are not harvested for this purpose (Li & Hsieh 2004); therefore, a different means of controlling the blooms will have to be established.

Nautilus pompilius’s rhinophores and lateral digital tentacles are thought to have a chemosensory function, and be crucial for locating prey

(Post by Kathryn McRae)

Nautilus pompilius is a shelled cephalopod (Picture 1) found in the Indo-Pacific at a depth of 300m. (Soucier and Basil, 2008) At night Nautilus pompilius rises to a depth of 75m and hunts for crustaceans, nematodes, and echinoids along coral reef slopes. (Basil et al, 2000) (Ruth et al, 2002)Though Nautilus pompilius has primitive image forming eyes, Nautilus pompilius is believed to rely on chemoreception when hunting. (Basil et al, 2000) The parts of Nautilus pompilius thought to have cartier replica a specialized chemosensory function cartier jewelry replica are the rhinophores fake cartier bracelet replica
and lateral how much cartier love bracelet does a cartier bracelet cost
digital tentacles. (Ruth et al, 2002)

(Picture 1:  A Nautilus pompilius. Photo taken by Josh More on Flickr, and published under the creative commons license.)

The rhinophores are located cartier love replica cartier ring bracelet
below the eyes, (Picture 2) and the lateral digital tentacles are normally retracted into the shell. (Ruth et al, 2002) Basil et al, (2005) observed that when fish scented water was pipetted onto the rhinophores that Nautilus pompilius exhibited cone of search behavior by extending and spreading its lateral digital tentacles, suggesting cartier love bracelet that the rhinophores have a chemosensory function. (Basil et al, 2005)  Once cone of search was triggered Nautilus pompilius began to swim towards the odor cartier love bracelet
source. (Basil et al, 2005)  When Basil et al, (2000) used a dyed odor to examine Nautilus pompilius’s tracking behavior, Nautilius pompilius was observed to mostly swim in the odor plume.  However, Nautilus pompilius was observed to briefly swim above and below the odor plume multiple times when greater then 100cm and less then 20cm away from the odor source respectively, suggesting that Nautilus pompilius tracks odors using vertical sensing.(Basil et al, 2000) Interestingly when the rhinophores were blocked Nautilus pompilius was unable to track the odor plume, suggesting that the rhinophores are crucial for locating cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
fake cartier bracelet and tracking an odor. (Basil et al, 2000) However, when Nautilus pompilius is nearby the odor source the lateral digital tentacles seem have a role in determining prey location.  (Ruth et al, 2002)

(Picture 2:  The primitive eye of Nautilus pompilius. The grey triangle just below the eye is the rhinophore. (Basil et al, 2005) Photo taken by bathyporeia on Flickr, and published under the creative commons license.)

Ruth et al, (2002) observed by placing food at the bottom of a tank that Nautilus pompilius further spread its lateral digital tentacles and swam closer to the tank bottom as the food was approached. When the food was very close Nautilus pompilius touched the bottom and started a digging behavior (Basil et al, 2005) by feeling around with its medial digital tentacles. (Ruth et al, 2002) Interestingly when Basil et al, (2005)  pipetted fish scented water onto Nautilus pompilius’s lateral digital tentacles the digging behavior was triggered; suggesting that the lateral digital tentacles have a chemosensory function and may signal when prey is nearby. (Basil et al, 2005) When Nautilus pompilius located the food, the food was grabbed with the medial digital tentacles, transferred to the buccal tentacles, and then brought to the beak. (Ruth et al, 2002) Interestingly, when Ruth et al, (2002) offered food near Nautilus pompilius’s lateral digital tentacles the food was grabbed by the medial digital tentacles, suggesting that the lateral digital tentacles may only be used for chemoreception. Ruth et al, (2002)

In summary cartier bracelet Nautilus pompilius’s rhinophores and lateral digital tentacles are thought to have a specialized chemosensory function and be crucial for locating prey. (Basil et al, 2000) The rhinophores are believed to allow Nautilus pompilius to locate and use vertical sensing to track an odor plume. (Basil et al, 2000) The lateral digital tentacles are thought to detect nearby odors. (Basil et al, 2005) (Ruth et al, 2002) This is thought to signal that prey is nearby, and may cause Nautilus pompilius to switch from a cone of search to a digging behavior. (Basil et al, 2005) (Ruth et al, 2002)

Cuttlefish: Underwater Magicians

(Post by Hayley Galbraith)

Cephalopods are a Class within Phylum Mollusca which includes octopus, squid, and cuttlefish (Barbosa, Mäthger, Chubb, Florio, Chiao, & Hanlon, 2007). There are approximately 2000 species of cuttlefish, ranging in size from small to medium, making up a total of 5 families (Mehanna & Al-Mamry, 2013). Along with other cephalopods, cuttlefish are well known for their ability to blend into their surroundings by changing their skin color in the blink of an eye. This incredible feat leads people cartier jewelry replica to wonder: how exactly is this accomplished?

To change colors, cephalopods use neurally controlled chromatophore organs which are found within the skin (Wardill, Gonzales-Bellido, Crook, & Hanlon, 2012). Chromatophores are made up of 5 main parts: the pigment cell, radial muscle fibers, nerve fibers for each muscle fiber, glial cells, and sheath cells (Cloney & Brocco, 1983). When changing their skin color to match their surroundings, it was found by Chiao, Kelman, & Hanlon (2005) that cuttlefish rely on visual stimuli to choose the appropriate display pattern for their environment. The optic lobe is responsible for taking in these visual cues to determine which pattern is appropriate for their surroundings (Messenger, 2001; Budelmann, 1995). Signals are then sent to different areas within the brain depending on which part of the body needs to be changed. Different regions within the brain’s basal lobe control the muscles which are involved in expanding or contracting the chromatophores in response to different stimuli (Budelmann, 1995). More specifically, stimulation of the lateral basal lobe produces a darkening of the head, arms, and mantle whereas stimulation of the medial basal lobe produces a lightening of the skin within the same region (Boycott, 1961). In response to the signal sent from the neutrally controlled chromatophores, the radial muscles attached to the chromatophore contract causing the chromatophore to expand. This produces either a yellow, red, or brown color due to the pigment granules found within the pigment cells (Cloney & Brocco, 1983).

There are a variety of different display patterns how much cartier bracelet
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that can be accomplished by the expansion of different chromatophore areas at different times. One of the most commonly used patterns is known as passing cloud which is used to distract prey (Hanlon & Messenger, 1988) and is often shown in documentaries about cuttlefish. NatGeoWild’s video (2012) shows a cuttlefish demonstrating the passing cloud display pattern when approaching a prey item. Other display patterns include stipple (for hiding amongst multicolored gravel – see figure 1), weak or intense Zebra (See figure 2), uniform blanching or darkening, and deimatic (for hiding from potential predators) (Hanlon & Messenger, 1988) among many others.

The ability to change their skin color has a provided cartier nail cartier bracelet bracelet
a wide range of uses fake cartier bracelet replica
for cuttlefish. Chromatophores are present in cuttlefish as soon as they hatch which allows them to hide from any nearby replica cartier love bracelet predators (Hanlon & Messenger, 1988). As previously mentioned, cuttlefish also use their color changing abilities when hunting. Display patterns such as disruptive, stipple, and weak zebra were noted in a study by Adamo, Ehgoetz, Sangster and Whitehorne (2006) during hunting but no patterns were associated with a specific prey item. It was also noted during the study that most cuttlefish would change from a darkened pattern (light mottle, dark mottle, or uniform blanching) to a deimatic display pattern (flattening and paling of the body with two dark circles on the dorsal surface [Hanlon & Messenger, 1988]) in response to predator stimuli. Other uses for the color change include communication for the purpose of mating or for threat display towards other males (Messenger, 2001). The use of the intense zebra display is also used by cuttlefish to differentiate between males and females as only males are capable of displaying intense zebra which is displayed all over the body including on the fourth arm whereas females are capable of displaying a similar pattern, weak zebra, which is displayed all over the body excluding the fourth arm (Hanlon & Messenger, 1988).

Cephalopods have the most complex nervous system of all the invertebrates bracelet replica cartier (Budelmann, 1995). When looking at the body-weight ratio of cephalopods, their brain is as big as, if not bigger, than most fish (Packard, 1972) which is evident in their complex behavior. Their unique ability to communicate via color changing patterns and blend seamlessly into their environment truly makes them underwater cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
replica cartier magicians.

 

Figure 1. A cuttlefish camouflaged in the sand bracelets love awaiting an unsuspecting prey item. Photo by Ben Thompson. Used under Creative cartier love bracelet Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic Licence.

 

Figure 2. A male (top) and female (bottom) hooded cuttlefish, Sepia prashadi, displaying the zebra pattern. Photo by prilfish. Used under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic licence.

Sea Cucumbers

(Post by Marina Desjardines)

The ocean is a vast ecosystem covering a majority of the earth’s surface. It is filled with a large diversity of creatures with a large range of sizes. Many of these creatures may not even look like living things such as the corals and the sponges. It is home to some cartier love bracelet
of the strangest and creepiest living creatures on earth, many of which haven’t even been discovered yet. It is quite disturbing actually to think of how much is unknown of the creatures that live in the depths of the ocean. Others however are harmless and what some might even call cute like the sea horse or the cuttlefish. One of the strangest, yet harmless, creatures of the ocean is the sea cucumber and of particular interest, the sea pig.

The sea cucumber, which you might guess from its name, has an elongated cylindrical body. The name may be misleading due to the fact that most sea cucumbers don’t really look like the vegetable. However, this one actually does.

 

Other than this exception, the sea cucumber does not look like something you would want to eat, although they are eaten in certain parts of the world. Sea cucumbers can be a range of different colours and some may have additional or exaggerated features on the surface of their bodies like this one below.

 

The sea cucumber has a flexible body wall with circular and longitudinal muscles used for moving along the ocean floor. They can range in size from several centimeters to over 1 meter in length (Pechenik, 2015). They have rows of tube feet fake cartier bracelet replica
or “podia” along the sides of their bodies (Pechenik, 2015). The tube feet are extended using hydraulic cartier jewelry replica pressure to help them move (Pechenik, 2015). These tube feet are cylindrical shafts that may have a sucker at the tip or may be coated in a sticky mucous (Pechenik, 2015). Some species may have reduced tube feet, or in some species that are specialized for burrowing, they may even be absent altogether (Pechenik, 2015). Around the sea cucumbers mouth are modified tube feet or “tentacles” used for catching food and picking up sediment in feeding (Pechenik, 2015). These are also extended using hydraulic pressure (Pechenik, 2015). There are four different types of feeding tentacles including dendritic, peltate, pinnate, and digitate as seen how much does a cartier bracelet cost
below in figure 1.

 

The sea cucumber is unique in that it has a structure called a respiratory tree (Pechenik, 2015).  The respiratory tree is connected to the cloaca which is a common structure used for the release of waste and reproductive products (Pechenik, 2015). The cloaca is responsible for bringing water into the respiratory tree (Pechenik, 2015).  In other words, the sea cucumber actually breathes through its anus cartier bracelets making it one of the stranger creatures in the ocean. The sea cucumbers defense mechanism is another one of the reasons it is one of the strangest creatures in the ocean. When it feels threatened it will expel some or all of its internal organs out of its anus, I’m guessing in order to confuse the predator. This process is called evisceration and is displayed in the picture below.

 

You might think that this process is useless and might be more of a suicide mission. However, due to the sea cucumbers amazing regenerative abilities it is able to regrow all of its organs. This ability leads us to the next strange fact about the sea cucumber. The anus of the sea cucumber is quite often home to another strange creature called the pearlfish. The pearlfish will actually swim up the cloaca of the sea cucumber and hide callingallcakes.org there (Simon, 2014). Depending on the pearlfish, they might have a commensal or parasitic relationship (Simon, 2014). In the commensal relationship the pearlfish is just using the sea cucumber as protection from predators which has no effect on the sea cucumber (Simon, 2014). However, some pearlfish will actually feed on the gonads of the sea cucumber which has a negative effect on the sea cucumber but is not detrimental since it can regenerate the gonads. (Simon, 2014).

The sea cucumber is an invertebrate, defined as an animal lacking a spine or backbone. It is part of the Phylum Echinodermata, which comes from the Greek word meaning replica cartier spiny skin. This is seen in the sea stars and sea urchins, which are also part of the phylum, due to the calcareous exoskeleton that is lacking in the sea cucumbers. The sea cucumbers make up the class Holothuroidea which contains about 1200 species (Pechenik, 2015). As I mentioned earlier, of particular interest is the sea pig. The sea pig, otherwise known as Scotoplanes globosa is a sea cucumber of the order elasidpodida, and family Elpidiidae (Shapiro, 2012).

Sea cucumbers can be found at various depths in the ocean. The sea pigs, however, live in depths of 2100m-6770m and are found in large numbers (Shapiro, 2012). These animals live in pitch black and have a transparent, almost pink coloured, body wall. They have exaggerated tube feet on their sides and additional modified tube feet on their backs that help them find food in the dark (Simon, 2015). Below are pictures of a sea pig taken out of the water (left) and one on the ocean floor (right).

 

 

 

 

 

 

As you can see they are pretty weird looking creatures. The sea pigs differ from the sea cucumbers that live in the shallower waters in that they have lost the need for the respiratory tree and actually breathe through their thin skin (Simon, 2015). In addition, they have also lost their need for evisceration since the number cartier love bangle of predators in those depths are much less than in shallower waters. This is also probably due to the fact that re-growing organs after evisceration takes a lot of energy and the amount of food available to the sea pig to make up for it is not enough (Simon, 2015). The sea pigs have peltate tentacles that they use to feed on marine snow that rains down on the ocean floor and sediment. Although hermes replica jewelry it is relatively safer in deep waters, the sea pig does still have a defense mechanism in the form of unpalatable chemicals in their skin (Simon, 2015). For a funny video describing the sea pig click here (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_y4DbZivHCY).

I used to believe cartier love bangle the sea cucumber to be a unanimous, disgusting blob that lurks in the depths below. Not much has changed beyond the fact that in my eyes. Yes, indeed they are still disgusting blobs, and yes the lurk, but now with a purpose and greater understanding. For example, I found the relationship between the Sea Cucumber and Pearl fish to be both unique and surprising. It’s an ironic happenstance that a fish would take refuge inside of a sea cumber and in most cases ingest its gonads. Neat thing is, the sea cucumber can regenerate its organs and keep on lurking. As useless and mysterious as the Sea Cucumber may still seem, it serves its purpose on the ocean floor playing its important role in the underwater ecosystem of deep sea dwellers.

References

Conand, C., 1998. Holothurians. In: K. E. Carpeneter & V. H. Niem cartier bracelet of anastasia steele fifty
(eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 2. Cephalopods, crustaceans, holothurians and sharks. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp. 1158-1184.

Pechenik, J. A. (2015). Biology of the Invertebrates. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. P 513-518.

Shapiro, L., 2012. Encyclopedia of Life. Scotoplanes globosa Sea Pig. Retrieved March 20, 2016 from http://eol.org/pages/599675/overview.

Simon, M., 2014. Science. Absurd Creature of the Week: This fish swims up a sea cucumber’s butt and eats cartier bracelet
its gonads. Retrieved March 21, 2016 from http://www.wired.com/2014/02/absurd-creature-of-the-week-pearlfish/

Simon, M., 2015. Science. Absurd Creature of the Week: Chubby little ‘Sea Pig’ tastes more like poison than bacon. Retrieved on March 21, 2016 fromhttp://www.wired.com/2015/04/absurd-creature-of-the-week-sea-pig/