new beginnings…

I realize this blog post is late. In fact I’m writing this for 2 reasons: to apply for a blogger position for the IUFRO World Congress this October and to fulfill the requirements for a course for my MSc in Natural Resources and Environmental Studies (Forestry). Regretfully, I’ve missed the deadline for both, but I’m still hoping this submission will allow me the opportunity to blog in Salt Lake City this Fall!

Since the end of the semester in April, I’ve been working on planting pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and spruce (Picea glauca X engelmannii) seedlings for my 2 research trials: one at the Enhanced Forestry Laboratory and the other in the field at Aleza Lake Research Forest. Before I began the planting, my first challenge was determining an application rate to fertilize the 1-year old seedlings. However, we are using bioenergy ash rather than a typical fertilizer. Due to the lack of research on this topic in Canada, I considered the standards for ash fertilization in countries such as Sweden, Finland and Denmark. In these countries, the application rates take into account levels of trace elements, like mercury, lead and cadmium, that can remain in ash after the combustion process. High levels of these nasty heavy metals can occur in wood that has been treated or contaminated.

The moisture content of the wood ash was also considered because the ash sourced from a local pulp and paper mill (CPLP) is approximately 70% moisture, compared to the UNBC Bioenergy ash, which is a mere 0.13%. This can be attributed to the difference in the handling of the ash because the CPLP ash is typically cooled with water. The water content then altered the required amount for each type of ash.

Once the amount was weighed, the ash was place into a heat-sealable teabag, a method that attempts to emulate the fertilization technique used in reforestation in some areas of British Columbia. This is the method of application that will be compared to the broadcast application technique, which is the most typical method used for the application of ash for the purposes of forest fertilization.


Ash teabags (not actually for tea!)

When the teabags were ready, each potted seedling received the assigned amounts, whether via broadcast application or via teabag. The teabag was buried 2 fingers away from the seedling stem and 1cm below the surface, a practice typically done in operational reforestation. The field trial, which will be installed soon, is basically the larger-scaled version of the greenhouse study.

Adding the teabags to the pots

The “greenhouse” trial under “natural” lighting conditions

Currently, the field trial is in the beginning stages. Skilled tree planters, using traditional tree planting techniques, have planted the pine and spruce seedlings. However, the scale of the field study requires more teabags and therefore, I have recruited some help along the way. Probably the biggest help I’ve had is from a little dog. His name is Doug and he was my loyal companion, who was there for me through my whole BSc, for moral support, stress relief and smiles. Sadly, last week, our time together ended suddenly. In tribute to Doug, I’ll end this post with a pic of him on one of our last days together spent at Aleza Lake in our element: the wilderness of beautiful B.C.

Dougie overlooking the field trial

Thanks for reading and looking forward to IUFRO WC in October!

La Ronge or Bust

Quite a few of the presentations we were treated to over the past few weeks had ties to place through a connection with food.  As I was driving back home to Saskatchewan, passing community after community, I couldn’t help but wonder how the people there came to live in these places and what kind of stories about the area could they share. I started to realize that I have connections on this journey back to La Ronge and in a way the space along the ride home has become places to me.  I have some good memories of the Ancient Forest.

Mukluk and I during our first trip to the Ancient Forest – Sept 1, 2013

I drive by a hotel that I stayed at where my dog and I were the only tenants in McBride as the weather took a bad turn as I was driving back to PG.  I spent time visiting the owner as she loved my dog and I was grateful for the company after such a long drive.

My daughter and I at Mt. Robson

Stopping at Mount Robson is must for my dog and I, as it is a great place for her to have a run.  One of my favorite signs along the Highway 16 is for a place called Camp He Ho Ha.  Driving through Edson my mind wondered to my own home La Ronge, as many people from there make an annual pilgrimage to Edson for ball each summer.  Edmonton contains tons of memories as it is a relatively close major city from La Ronge.  Vegrevilleis a common stop for me and my family as we have to check out the huge ‘Easter’ egg and my daughter and I stay at a hotel there in route between PG and La Ronge on occasion.

Me and the giant egg – April 8, 2014

I realized as I passed through Vermillion that I was thinking about Mike’s presentation and considering the farms that I was passing.  The influence of the oil and gas industry was everywhere.   I wonder how that income and change of purpose for those lands had changed the connection and the feeling of place for those farmers. By the time I got to North Battleford, I could do the drive in my sleep.  I have driven that route many times in my lifetime as both the driver and as a passenger.  My sister and her family lived in North Battleford for many years.  I have a strong sense of place there from the time I spent there and from stories from my dad as he grew up in that area.

I decided to record the journey from North Battleford to La Ronge through pictures.  Most people consider the prairies to be flat and full of farmland, and of course, some parts of it are definitely like that, however, my connections are with hills, trees and lakes.  Here are but a few of the pictures I took and one older one.

You know you are in SK when the tiger lillies get huge.

Just North of Prince Albert. They have a pulp mill too, however, theirs is downwind generally.

The thunder hills in my rear view mirror. They are known for having more snow and rain than anywhere else around La Ronge.

Lac La Ronge last winter at this time. I have not been out yet, as I just got home, so this will have to do.

The Quest for Home

Thea Zuiker

Trailer living room, dining room, and guest room

One of my absolute favourite things in the entire world of limitless temptations and undying distractions is reading a book on a comfy couch while the rain pours down outside. So romantic, so cozy, so mine. Preferably, there’s always a plate of freshly baked cookies balancing on my stomach and a cup of tea that is never more than an arm’s reach away.

I drift back to such times on my days off when I worked on the farm in Nova Scotia and I get such a deep longing in my heart that it takes everything I have not to pack ‘er all in and head east. Daydreaming about reading The Lord of the Rings for the seventh time in my 16-foot trailer with Babe the dog curled up at my feet, it’s easy to forget the dreadfully cold early mornings, the scramble on market days, hay rash, outdoor showers in October, or that time I broke the tractor (lawnmower, weed-whacker…). Thankfully the fate of Middle Earth is not dependent on a clumsy hobbit-wannabee like me.

Babe waiting for the tidal bore on the St. Croix



But the cold spring rain was always outdone by the fog that would sweep in across the St. Croix River. Smiling faces of satisfied customers melted away the stress of harvest days. The outdoor showers simply became less frequent; the tractor was fixed, as were the lawnmower and weed-whacker; and I confess, I still fail to see any good in hay rash.

Researching what it means to live-in-place, to belong to it and to identify with it, I’ve found myself asking deeper, more personal questions. I began to wonder how my relationship with places, or lack thereof, helped shape who I am. What experiences made those places the most meaningful?




Autumn hay day

Without hesitation I think of the farm. A place I knew intimately and where I was known by the community that supported it. It’s the place where my love for food took on a more profound significance. It’s even where, sans guidebook, I boldly began experimenting with wild food. If I try really hard, I can almost taste the Orange Crush-like flavour of wood sorrel. I am comforted by the fact that my personal experiences support my thesis and I am spirited that my research helped me ask these questions.

Aerial of Horse and Garden Farm

I know now too that my gypsy wanderings haven’t been for naught. I think of Frodo, leaving the comforts of the Shire on a quest to save the place he called home, and I know that leaving is a part of staying. The home place must be balanced by the need to stay and the desire the leave, and that satisfying one too easily may led to burning restlessness or crippling nostalgia. The places I’ve loved tend to slip my grasp like sand and a fire still burns beneath me, keeping me on the move. But the relationship between food and place has revealed the importance of rootedness and helped to satisfy my yearning for home.

Climate change impact in snow and ice in Northern Hemisphere.

I have a keen interest in the climatological study of snow and ice in response to the climate change. Snow and other elements of the cryosphere are sensitive indicators of climate change. Since my study site is the largest bay of the northern hemisphere, I would like to share some findings on impact of climate change in snow and ice in Northern Hemisphere.
Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. In the Northern Hemisphere, 1983–2012 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years. The total increase in temperature between the average of the 1850–1900 period and the 2003–2012 period is 0.78 [0.72 to 0.85] °C, based on the single longest dataset available ( IPCC, 2013).

Global average temperature, global sea level rise and northern hemisphere snow cover since 1850-2000 (IPCC, 2007).

It was found that the snow cover reduction was significant at the hemispheric scale with an estimated average NH SCE loss of 3.1 × 106 km2 (100 yr)-1 associated with significant warming of 1.26°C (100 yr)-1 over NH midlatitudinal land areas (40°–60°N) (Brown, 2000). Continuous satellite measurements capture most of the Earth’s seasonal snow cover on land, and reveal that Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover has declined by about 2% per decade since 1966, although there is little change in autumn or early winter. In many places, the spring decrease has occurred despite increases in precipitation. Since 1978, satellite data have provided continuous coverage of sea ice extent in both polar regions. For the Arctic, average annual sea ice extent has decreased by 2.7 ± 0.6% per decade, while summer sea ice extent has decreased by 7.4 ± 2.4% per decade(IPCC, 2007).

Change in the Arctic Sea ice cover from 1979- 2007.

Snow and ice cover influences the atmosphere and ocean, and therefore the climate system, through both direct and indirect effects. The most fundamental effect is attributable to the high reflectivity of snow/ice to incident solar radiation (albedo) called as snow-albedo effect. Also snow and ice insulate the underlying land/ocean surface and largely shut off transfers of turbulent energy to/from the atmosphere. For sea ice, most transfers are through leads and other open water areas in the ice (Barry, 2002).
Snow cover serves as a reservoir, which as it melts supplies a considerable amount of water for ecosystems, irrigation, and human consumption, in some locations well into the spring. For instance, agricultural regions adjacent to high mountains have a high dependence on melting snow. Also, the Arctic is the home of the polar bear which is being threaten due to warming.

Barry, R. G. (2002). The Role of Snow and Ice in the Global Climate System: A Review. Polar Geography, 26(3), 235–246. doi:10.1080/789610195
Brown, R. D. (2000). Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Variability and Change , 1915 – 97. Journal of Climate, 13, 2339–2355.

How spending time with new and young farmers has made me a better person!


I am a lucky man!  As an aspiring farmer (someday!), appreciator and researcher of farmers, I was lucky enough to travel across northern BC’s Highway 16 corridor to spend time with new and young farmers this past fall.  The main purpose of this journey was to complete research for my graduate studies thesis, however the rewards of this journey extended far beyond the work.


For my research, I helped out on 12 regional farms operated by new and young farmers.  My farm visits lasted one to two days each, although the connections I experienced on this journey made me feel like I had known these farmers for years.  Each farm I visited and farmer I met were research participants, and yet- I left each farm with new friends, a sense of purpose, happiness and a renewed belief in the goodness in people!


I am currently studying the motivations of new and young farmers along northern BC’s highway 16 corridor, extending from Valemount to Terrace.  I entered this research project expecting to learn a few new reasons about why these farmers have chosen the profession they have, and expecting to meet a few new interesting farmers.  Little did I know this would be such an extreme understatement of my experience.


The farmers that I had the opportunity to meet invited me into their lives and treated me like I was an old friend.  They shared their thoughts, experiences, emotions, homes and food with me.  I got the sense that these farmers would do this for anyone who showed up at their door.  All of them were kind and open; I can only hope to be this gracious of a person someday.


The farmers I met produce a variety of products for a variety of communities, however they all have one thing in common: they are dedicated to creating a better world for themselves and for those around them. These new and young farmers have made tremendous sacrifices in order to pursue a common passion of producing good, delicious, healthy food for their communities.  They have left the comfort of high paying jobs.  They have let the comfort of having spare time.  They have left the comfort of not having to worry about how the next weather pattern may devastate an entire season’s worth of energy, effort, blood, sweat and tears. All of them had wisdom on how one must give in order to receive, yet none of them expected much in return. Giving seemed to be their reward.  All of them have a strength and benevolence that to me – makes this world a better place.

These new and young farmers decided to become farmers in northern BC for a variety of reasons and come from a diverse range of backgrounds, yet they all share a common bond.  They want to connect with the land through working with it, and connect with people through providing their communities with good food.  I don’t know if I can think of a more noble life pursuit.  Seeing this passion in new and young farmers makes me want to develop greater connections in my own life.  Spending time with these new and young farmers has made me a better person!

Storytelling and the Lexicon of Sustainability

“If you don’t synthesize knowledge, scientific journals become spare-parts catalogues for machines that are never built.” ― Arthur R. Marshall

When I started my Masters degree in Natural Resources and Environmental Studies – with an emphasis on food systems and community planning – I never expected that the education I would actually be getting would be in communication. As it turns out, the majority of my time, course work, and research has involved some conversation or inquiry into the question of effective and relevant communication.

This has taken many forms:
1) As a TA, most especially in Integrated Resource Management (with a huge negotiation component) and Natural Resource Management and Conservation. I have had to figure out how to navigate the ebbs and flows of communication with students (and faculty) of all ages and at all levels of education and desire.
2) NRES 704, a course focused on various forms of communicating research, and how to achieve that successfully across multiple disciplines and for varying audiences.
3) Navigating the world of academia, including the hierarchy of power, the inevitable administrative snafus, and the diversity of people who interact at this institution and in the community.
4) Finally, in the dissemination of my research. Much of my personal interest and therefore focus has shifted in the past few months toward the dissemination of academic research so that it is palatable and relevant to the community for which it is meant to be done. In trying to best achieve this, I have settled on storytelling as a powerful and effective way of first peeking the interest of listeners, engaging them and keeping their attention, and finally leaving them with a memory of what they heard.
Storytelling is as old as the hills, as intrinsically human as sharing meals (wink wink). And the art of effective storytelling is a real gift; it is a skill that I plan to cultivate my whole life.

Though it isn’t my place or desire to offer advice for your academic careers, I do strongly encourage you all to experiment with alternative forms of communication when it comes to your research and teaching. I think that, in many ways, the academic institution has lost touch with reality, publishing journals for each other instead of creating useful plans and designs for a better world. You are all doing such incredible work; I feel it would be a great loss if that work was not communicated to the people who can use it.

Thanks for a great semester,

Farming can be PUN!

I have included a link to a short video that I find particularly powerful (especially with respect to communication) concerning the benefits of grassfed beef on a rotational grazing system; what this video represents is a holistic management technique that arguably has the capacity to sequester more carbon than if everyone stopped using fossil fuels. This is not a new technique being introduced. But the method is. The video was created by the Lexicon of Sustainability, whose motto is: Words are the building blocks for new ideas. They have the power to activate change and transform societies. I truly believe that communication that is engaging, relevant, authentic, and that caters to all learning types can be seriously effective. Enjoy!

Grass Fed: The Lexicon of Sustainability

“If it’s not tied down, it’s under my microscope”

Today I wanted to talk about something completely different from my thesis but on a topic I have always found interesting- The microbiology of wastewater treatment.  I know it’s weird but even as a kid I wanted to understand the processes behind wastewater treatment and so after completing my degree I did a diploma in Water Engineering Technology (WET).  I’ll give you a brief overview of the activated sludge process and show some amazing pictures I took in the lab.

The most appropriate place to start is to examine why wastewater treatment is important.  We treat wastewater to 1. Remove or inactivate pathogens to prevent diseases 2. Remove and mineralize organic matter to reduce BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) loading into environment that can deplete oxygen in receiving waters  3. Remove and reduce nutrients to reduce nutrient pollution to surface that would results in higher productivity and eutrophication.

The process I am most interested in is the use of activated sludge which relies on microorganisms to make up the floc to remove BOD and nutrients through chemical respiration.  The actual science gets very intricate when examining how certain organisms can remove phosphorus, nitrogen and BOD.  I’ll just leave you with a short description: Each microbe has an energy source, a carbon source and an electron source needed for cellular respiration and the variations in chemicals used allow different components in wastewater to be broken down.  In general, the three main processes monitored are phosphorus removal by polyphosphorus accumulating bacteria, nitrification by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter and finally denitrification.

Through a process of physical separation, biological breakdown and disinfection wastewater goes from gross to clean.

Left- before UV disinfection, Right- after UV disinfection. Where purple indicates fecal coliform contamination

Microscope pictures:

Floc in activated sludge formed from filamentous bacteria

Top right- Rotifer  Bottom- Spirogyra algae

Stalked ciliates

Crawling Ciliates


And last but not least, my favorite picture showing the red eye spots on a Rotifer

All of these pictures we taken at either the Kelowna or Vernon wastewater treatment plants.

And as for my title ” If it’s not tied down, it’s under my microscope”, it’s true.  Any free time I had at work was spent analyzing hundreds of samples, looking at the different bacteria and protozoans present 🙂

Hope you enjoyed my brief overview on the microbes in wastewater treatment.  I have a lot more pictures and a brief powerpoint that I have used when I acted as a guest lecturer for 1st year WET students, so please ask me more about wastewater treatment.




Paint Waste Management

I will like to discuss household paint waste management. I chose this topic because it is something that caught my interest as I had little knowledge on paint disposal options and recycling facilities.

What is paint?



Paint is a colored substance spread over a surface that dries up to leave a thin decorative or protective coating. Paints can be classified in various based on the solvent they contain. The presence of solvent in paints help to reduce viscosity, control setting time, drying time and durability (Gooch J.W. 1993).

  • Water-based paint: this is a coating system that uses water to a large extent as a solvent. Example is the latex paint which can also be referred to as an emulsion. The water based paint does not produce or release any solvent fume into the atmosphere ,thus, we can say it is environmentally friendly and not necessarily toxic. Examples of polymers or emulsions used in latex paint include acrylics, polyvinyl acetate, styrene- Butadiene. Among these polymers, acrylics have been found to be the best quality emulsions used in latex paints because they are basic and thus reduces the danger of rusting.


  • Organic solvent based paint: these contain significant amounts of Volatile organic compounds (VOC). The VOC content of a refinishing product is basically the solvent content of the product or the solvent which is added. When these solvents are released into the atmosphere they combine with nitrogen oxides to form ground level ozone air pollution such as smog. VOC’s are not only harmful to our environment, but contribute to eye and skin irritations and adverse respiratory health effects such as asthma and bronchitis.


  • The last categories of paint is the Powder (dry, without solvent). They are applied using electrostatics spray, fluidized bed, and flame spray application techniques (Gooch J.W. 1993).


Paint wastes can be generated through equipment cleaning, VOC emission during application, curing and drying; empty containers and left over paints. Paint waste generated from household applications can be considered hazardous because of the presence of toxic or hazardous component metals such as lead, chromium; and organic solvent which may contribute to ground water contamination if not properly disposed.


Paint disposal

Hazardous wastes are collected separately to reduce management problems and also reduce the emissions from the main waste stream of households.

In disposing waste paint, oil or solvent based paint waste containers should be taken to a local hazardous waste collection facility.

Latex paints can be disposed of in trash. But the container must be dry or solidified. In a situation where there are large amount of paint remaining in the container, the paint can be disposed of by lining a cardboard box with a trash bag and then pour the paint into the box. Drying agent such as sand, shredded paper or any product specifically used for drying paint is then added. The box should be placed out of reach of children and when completely dry, the trash bag can be placed in the trash container while the cardboard box and paint can should be recycled. For paint containers that do not have much left over, they can be left open to air dry before putting it in recycling bins.

In British Columbia, Extended Producer Responsibility EPR (formerly referred to as Industry Product Stewardship) is an environmental policy approach in which the producer’s responsibility for reducing environmental impact and managing the product is extended across the whole life cycle of the product, from selection of materials and design to its end-of-life. Product care is the paint stewardship program in BC.

A point to note is that disposal of unused latex paint waste valuable resources and consumes landfill space. Therefore, an alternative to disposal is to prevent the waste by:

(1) Purchasing the required amount of paint needed for the work,

(2) Facilitating reuse which means proper storage has to be done. Lids has to be tightly covered and containers kept at room temperature.

(3) Unused paints or left over paints (good quality and reasonable quantity) can be donated to communities, churches or schools. This can be done through the paint exchange program, that is, the drop and swap program which facilitates the collection and reuse of latex paint.



Gooch J.W. 1993. Lead-based paint handbook. Plenum Press, New York

Gold recovery by using bio-technologies from e-waste – Bei Xu

Last month, I heard that a student recovered gold from e-waste successfully. Since my own research is about using a bio-technology to recover Cr, I became interested in the technologies that are being used for the recovery of precious metals from e-waste, especially for gold recovery. In this blog, I will show the general procedures of the recovery of gold from e-waste, and also show some related bio-technologies.


Compared with natural gold ores which has around 0.5–13.5 g gold per ton, e-waste has significantly higher gold content at around 10–10,000 g gold per ton, making it a viable alternative and more economic source of gold compared to natural ores (Natarajan & Ting, 2014). Therefore, the high value of gold recovery from e-waste calls for immediate development of an cost-effective and environmental friendly technology option. There are a number of control technologies for gold recovery. Mechanical separation, pyro-metallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and bio-hydrometallurgical technologies have been extensively used to recover gold from e-waste (Liang et al., 2014; Syed, 2012).

In recent years, research attention has been focused on bio-hydrometallurgical technology, which has been demonstrated to possess good potential to replace conventional methods for gold recovery.The process of gold recovery by using bio-hydrometallurgical technology can be summarized from literatures as showed in flow sheet below.


There are two main steps of bio-metallurgical process for gold recovery, namely leaching and bio-sorption.

Leaching is the process of extracting a soluble constituent from a solid by means of a solvent, which is the initial step in hydrometallurgical and bio-metallurgical processes (Cui & Zhang, 2008). In gold leaching, two kinds of bio-technologies are being used, which are bio-oxidation and bio-leaching.Bio-oxidation has been successfully applied in recovery of gold from metallic sulfides, which are the major bearing minerals of gold, and spent electronic materials, by the use of bacterially assisted reactions (Syed, 2012). In other words, the activity of leaching bacteria is applied prior to chemical leaching (mainly is cyanidation treatment) to improve leaching efficiency and decrease the consumption of lixiviants.

In Bio-leaching, which is also known as bacterial leaching, the solubilization is mediated by bacteria. So bio-leaching is a process by which the metal of interest is extracted from e-waste and low grade ores by bacterial action (Aganwal, 2005).In recent years, some articles about the gold leaching by cyanogenic bacteria begin to emerge. Although cyanide formation by microorganisms is known for many years, quantitative data on the ability of HCN formation of many species are still missing. Regarding biological cyanide formation, cyanide is formed by a variety of bacteria as secondary metabolite, such as e.g. Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and P. aeruginosa, many of them are belonging to the soil microflora (Brandl et al.. 2008).

Biosorption and incineration 

Bio-sorption using a wide variety of biomass to adsorb and concentrate metallic ions from wastewater has been considered an alternative technique (Won et al., 2010). Eco-friendly bio-sorption does not produce a chemical slurry, can be used in situ, and, with proper design, may not require any industrial process operations (Tewari et al., 2005 ). Substances can be physically or chemically adsorbed is onto the cell walls and cell-associated materials, moreover, alternatively bio-sorption can be related to cell metabolism.Various bio-sorbents were analyzed the possibility of bio-sorption of gold, which can be classified into algae, fungi, bacteria, animal products, and plant biomass (Das, 2010).

One of the important steps of bio-sorption is the recovery of gold from gold-loaded bio-sorbents. From literatures, two methods are used, desorption and incineration. Incineration as a new and convenient technology is getting more attentions. Au-loaded bio-sorbents can be incinerated to oxidize their organic constituents while simultaneously obtaining reduced gold.

Although my research is related with Cr, which has quite different properties from gold, the advanced bio-technologies of gold recovery are still useful for me. Thus, I am thinking to test the possibility of using certain mentioned technologies or procedures to recover chromium from wastewater.



  1. Aganwal.S.K., 2005. Advanced Environmental Biotechnology. p85. APH PublishingChaman Enterprises, New Delhi, India.
  2. Brandl, H., Lehmann, S., Faramarzi, M. A., & Martinelli, D. (2008). Biomobilization of silver, gold, and platinum from solid waste materials by HCN-forming microorganisms. Hydrometallurgy, 94(1), 14-17.
  3. Cui, J., & Zhang, L. (2008). Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: A review. Journal of hazardous materials, 158(2), 228-256.
  4. Das, N. (2010). Recovery of precious metals through biosorption—a review.Hydrometallurgy, 103(1), 180-189.
  5. Liang, C. J., Li, J. Y., & Ma, C. J. (2014). Review on Cyanogenic Bacteria for Gold Recovery from E-Waste. Advanced Materials Research, 878, 355-367.
  6. Natarajan, G., & Ting, Y. P. (2014). Pretreatment of e-waste and mutation of alkali-tolerant cyanogenic bacteria promote gold biorecovery. Bioresource technology, 152, 80-85.
  7. Syed, S. (2012). Recovery of gold from secondary sources—A review.Hydrometallurgy, 115, 30-51.
  8. Tewari, N., Vasudevan, P., Guha, B.K., 2005. Study on biosorption of Cr(VI) by Mucor hiemalis . Biochemical Engineering Journal 23 (2), 185–192.
  9. Won, S.W., Mao, J., Kwak, I.S., Sathishkumar, M., Yun, Y.S., 2010. Platinum recovery from ICP wastewater by a combined method of biosorption and incineration. Bioresource Technology 101 (4), 1135–1140.













Snow and Hudson Bay…

Hudson Bay is a large inland sea in northern Canada that receives considerable amounts of freshwater through riverine input. Among other factors, the streamflow into Hudson Bay affects the temperature, salinity, and density of water in the marine environment. So the study on contribution of snow to Hudson Bay river discharge is important. There are 14 major river basins identified contributing to the Hudson Bay.

Map of the Hudson Bay Basin showing the location of major rivers outlets

One of the most striking features of the Hudson Bay region is the complete annual cryogenic cycle. August and September are generally completely ice free, but sea ice begins to form in November and persists typically until June. The presence of this vast ice blanket has a tremendous impact on the regional climate. It has a unique ecosystem involving a vast range of species, including the polar bears, which use the ice as a platform to hunt seals during the winter and spring.
Hudson Bay has experienced change in the temperature over time. It is warming rapidly. Studies have shown that sea ice is virtually disappearing in Hudson Bay. This has threatened the life of a polar bear. The other life forms like seal, arctic char are also affected due to changes in the biochemistry of the water bodies caused by high snow melt.

Polar bear


Arctic Char

The Hudson Bay basin is especially critical since this region is projected to experience some of the greatest air temperature increases in the 21st century. So the study of snowmelt trend in its past decades could give idea on future projection.
My study will use the SWE data and streamflow data for each of watersheds within Hudson Bay basin to find the ratio of contribution of each of small watershed. Further, the ratios of all the watersheds are summed up to find the total contribution of snow to Hudson Bay streamflow generation. Comaprison of the hydrologic responses with temporal and spatial temperature data will be done to investigate the relation with changing climate. Mann Kandall test will be used to calculate the trend of the ratio with time line series.